Cholesterol Disease, Types, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatments
High Cholesterol is a fat like substance that is found in every cell of the body. It is produced by liver. It is waxy in texture, cholesterol is essential to produce hormones, vitamin D & substance that help you digest food.
- High Cholesterol is a special type of lipid that is called steroid
- Cholesterol is carried through your bloodstream by carrier made of lipid and protein called lipoprotein
Types of Cholesterol in our body
- Low Density Lipoprotein : It is also called as bad and harmful cholesterol as it get accumulated in the wall of vessels and form plaque. Which narrow the blood vessels and result in many disease.
- High Density Lipoprotein : It is also called as good cholesterol as it is help in removing excess cholesterol from blood, return it to liver where it is eliminated.
When LDL level increase or HDL level decrease is called High Cholesterol. It is also called as hypercholesterolemia or hyperlipidemia.
When LDL level increase or HDL level decrease deposition of plaque forms in blood vessels resulting in difficulty of blood flow in arteries. This could cause problem in the body particularly heart and body may result in fatal.
Causes of High Cholesterol
- Genetic or family history of High Cholesterol
- Lack of physical activities
- Smoking habits
- Obesity or overweight
- Age & Sex
- Food habits
Symptoms of High Cholesterol :
High Cholesterol typically does not cause any symptoms. In most cases it can only cause emergency situation. Even heart attack and stroke is a result of damage cause by formation of plaque in blood vessels due to high cholesterol.
Disease caused by High Cholesterol
- Coronary Artery (Heart) Disease
- Heart Attack
- Peripheral Arterial Disease
Symptoms of disease caused by high cholesterol
Coronary Artery (Heart) Disease Symptom
: Symptoms of heart disease are different according to age and sex but still one of the major reason behind the fatal (death) in today’s lifestyle.
- Angina (Chest pain)
- Extreme fatigue
- Pain in neck , jaw ,upper abdomen and back
- Coldness or numbness in extremities
: Due to formation of plaque blood supply to an important part of brain can be reduced or cut off resulted in stroke.
- Sudden loss of coordination
- Facial asymmetry
- Inability to move, particularly affect one side of the body
- Numbness in face, body especially arms and legs
- Blurred, blackened or double vision
- Sudden and severe headache
Peripheral Arterial Disease Symptoms
When formed plaque in blood vessel block the supply of blood in kidney, arms, stomach, leg and feet.
- Pain in legs during activities
- Discomfort in legs and feet
- Thinning and shininess of legs skin
- Tissue death due to decreased blood supply
- Burning in toes
- Leg Cramps
- Reduce hair growth on legs
Diagnosis of High Cholesterol
Blood test is the only way to know cholesterol. Levels of LDL Cholesterols is following :
- Normal Range : Less than 100 mg/dl
- Borderline Range : 130 to 159 mg/dl
- High Range : 160 to 189 mg/dl
Treatment of High Cholesterol
Non Medical Treatment
By changing your lifestyle you can improve your cholesterol level
- Reduce intake of food which has high content of cholesterol raising capacity or food enreach in trance fat (eg. Red meat, processed meat and dairy product)
- Limit your dietary cholesterol by using lean cut of meat and skim milk instead. Limit not more than 7 eggs a week.
- Select whole grain
- Increase fruits and vegetables in your plate
- Reduce or eliminate alcohol and smoking
- Lose extra pounds
- Exercise regularly
- Statins: It blocks a substance liver need to make cholesterol and help in removing cholesterol from body
- Bile – Acid binding Resin : It lower cholesterol indirectly by binding it to bile acid
- Cholesterol Absorption inhibitors : Reduce blood cholesterol by limiting the absorption of cholesterol from dietary intake
- Fibrates : It reduce LDL production by liver speeding up the removal of triglycerides from body
- Niacin : It decrease triglycerides by reduction in the production of LDL by liver
- Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplement : It lower the triglycerides
- Injectable medications : It is a new class of drug increase absorption of LDL by liver