All About Type 1 Diabetes
Don't worry if you or your child or someone close to you have type 1 diabetes. Diabetes is a serious disease, but with proper nutrition therapy, medical treatment, regular exercise, and diabetes training can last a healthy, long life.
What Is Glucose and Its Role?
Our body needs energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are the main nutrients in our food. The most important of these nutrients, which are divided into the smallest parts to be absorbed; It is a simple sugar called “glucose”.
Glucose is an important energy source of all organs of the body, especially for the brain. Cells use the glucose needed by the hormone secreted by the pancreas gland behind the stomach. If this hormone, which is known as insulin, cannot be made in the body, the foods taken cannot be used as energy.
Diabetes caused by an absolute deficiency of insulin hormone is called Type 1 diabetes. As can be seen at any age, it often begins in childhood and youth. It is therefore also called juvenile diabetes. In our country, 10% of diabetics thought to be over 4 million.
Type 1 diabetes is the condition that occurs when your immune system destroys cells called beta cells in the pancreas. It is a disease that should be treated for life after the onset of type 1 diabetes. In general, 10% of cases of diabetes in the community are cases of Type 1 diabetes. The prevalence of Type 1 diabetes in children varies between countries or regions and Type 1 diabetes is more common in northern countries.
What Are the Signs of Type 1 Diabetes?
- Blur or lack of vision and vision problems
- Fatigue and exhaustion
- Increased sense of hunger and thirst
- Dehydration- fluid loss: Large amounts of water goes into the urine, which causes the body to remain dehydrated.
- Weight loss although there is no obvious cause: While the glucose is excreted from the body, calories go with it. Therefore, people with high blood sugar lose weight. Dehydration also plays a role in this.
Doctors look at clinical and laboratory results to differentiate between two types of diabetes. Although there are exceptions, patients with Type 1 diabetes tend to be younger and weaker, and Type 2 diabetes patients are older and overweight.
After the diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes, the cell is responsible for insulin secretion will continue to secrete hormones for a while before they slow down. During this time, a person will need to take a low dose of insulin to keep the blood glucose level at a healthy level. This phase is called the honeymoon phase.
This stage may lead to a false misconception that Type 1 diabetes is progressing well. While the honeymoon phase shows signs of improvement, it will require close monitoring and regular adjustment of the insulin dose. Adherence to the recommended treatment plan is very important in the honeymoon phase.
Which Complications Might Occur if Type 1 Diabetes Not Treated?
If the person cannot manage these symptoms, several dangerous complications may occur.
Excessive sugar leads to weakening of the retinal wall, which is the region that distinguishes light and colors. As the retinopathy progresses, the thin blood vessels behind the eye stretch and break, resulting in visual problems. Among the reasons leading to blindness among working-age adults is diabetes.
The eye problem occurs in 80 percent of people with Type 1 diabetes for more than 15 years. It is rare before puberty, but it does not matter how long you have been sick. In order to prevent this and maintain eye health, keep blood sugar, blood pressure, cholesterol and triglyceride-the most common type of fat in the body- in good control.
High blood sugar weakens the circulation, damaging the nerves in the hands and feet, causing abnormal sensitization, such as burning, tingling or pain. Diabetes also reduces the body's ability to heal small cuts and wounds, leading to more permanent damage that the person cannot immediately recognize.
Diabetic Nephropathy or Diabetic Kidney Disease
The kidneys filter the glucose in the blood. Excessive glucose causes the kidneys to work excessively and the emergence of renal failure, which leads to the need for dialysis. Between 20 and 30 percent of people with type 1 diabetes experience nephropathy. The risk of overtime is increasing. Diabetes occurs 15 to 25 years after the onset. It can lead to more serious diseases such as renal failure.
Damage to The Body
Over time, the high level of glucose in the blood destroys nerves, eyes, kidneys, and capillaries in the heart. It leads to hardening of the arteries or arteriosclerosis, leading to a heart attack or paralysis.
Diabetes causes a series of anomalies that interfere with cardiac and vascular functions, including heart attack, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Because of the weakening of circulation, diabetes causes an increased risk of amputation.
Poor Blood Circulation and Nerve Damage
Damaged nerves and hardened vessels lead to a decrease in internal sensitivity and to a weakening of blood flow to the feet. This increases the risk of injury and causes difficulties in healing open wounds and injuries. Nerve damage causes digestive problems such as vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea.
Type 1 diabetes increases the risk of gum extraction and tooth loss. This means that patients with Type 1 diabetes should pay great attention to dental health.
Diabetes has a very close relationship with depression.
How to Treat Type 1 Diabetes?
There is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes! Patients with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin several times a day as the body no longer produces this hormone. People with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin for the rest of their lives. You can face life-threatening situations if you do not keep your type 1 diabetes in good control. Many people with type 1 diabetes have a long and healthy life. The key to good health is to keep the blood sugar level within the limits given by the doctor.
Changes in Life with Type 1 Diabetes
Exercise is important in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. But this is not just a simple thing to run. You must balance your insulin dose, what you eat, and any activity, whether at home or outdoors. First, check your blood sugar and see how it affects you after an activity. Some things carry your sugar level up and some don't. A snack of insulin or carbohydrate will help to prevent your candy from falling too low.
If you know the role that carbohydrates, fats, and proteins play, you can create a healthy eating plan that will help keep your sugar level at the required level. A dietitian can help you with that.
Who Carries a Higher Risk for Type 1 Diabetes?
Risk of developing type 1 diabetes;
- Patients with Type 1 diabetes who have first-degree relatives as parents,
- Patients with many Type 2 diabetes mellitus,
- It is higher in women who develop diabetes during pregnancy.
What Are the Urgent Problems in Type 1 Diabetes?
A person with type 1 diabetes can live a smooth and healthy life by applying a scientific and healthy nutrition program, regular exercise and appropriate insulin therapy. However, blood glucose can be increased in people with diabetes who do not perform adequate, timely and timely treatment, cannot adapt to nutritional therapy and consume excessive carbohydrates or disrupt exercise-hyperglycemia.
In contrast, diabetics who use an overdose of insulin or recommend food that is not consuming nutrients, especially those that contain carbohydrates in a timely manner, who consume alcohol or are over-exercising, may suddenly and rapidly drop-hypoglycemia.
What Should Be Done When Blood Sugar Drops?
It is an important condition that requires urgent intervention such as the decrease of blood sugar. Therefore, the person with diabetes should have a diabetic identity in a necklace, bracelet or watch strap.
In the case of hypoglycemia, which may occur as a result of diabetic person delaying a meal or snacks or spending more energy than usual, the person with diabetes will experience sweating, tremors, faintness, irritability, and restlessness. If the necessary precautions are not taken, compliance difficulties and loss of consciousness may occur.
Treatment modalities in hypoglycemia vary according to the symptoms observed in people with diabetes.
In cases where the symptoms are mild, 5-6 sugar cubes are melted in a glass of warm water, or 1 large cup of tea with sugar juice can be given. If there are no signs of improvement, 2 teaspoonfuls of sugar or 5-6 sugar cubes should be dissolved in a small amount of water and drank in small sips.
In hypoglycemia, with loss of consciousness, oral sugar or sugar water cannot be given. In this case, intramuscular glucagon injection is necessary, and it is vital to perform this needle.
What Should Be Done When Blood Sugar Rises?
Blood sugar is high in diabetes with frequent symptoms of urination, dry mouth, drinking too much water, dry skin and late healing of wounds, weakness, fatigue, and weakness. In this case, what should be done is to investigate whether the dose of the insulin used is correct or not. If hyperglycemia persists despite drinking plenty of water, the recommended insulin regimen and compliance with the nutritional plan, the individual with diabetes should consult the doctor immediately.